Oregon Research Institute / 1776 Millrace Drive / Eugene, Oregon 97403
T: 541.484.2123 / F: 541.484.1108 / Tony@ori.org
BA 1966 University of Rochester, Rochester, NY Psychology
MA 1968 University of Illinois, Urbana, IL Social Psychology
PhD 1971 University of Illinois, Urbana, IL Social Psychology
Postdoctoral 1971-72 University of Washington, Seattle Clinical Psychology
1998-present Senior Scientist, Oregon Research Institute
1979-1998 Research Scientist, Oregon Research Institute
2005-present Director, Center on Early Adolescence, Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR
2009-2012 Co-Director, Promise Neighborhoods Research Consortium
1977-1982 Psychologist, Behavior Change Center, Springfield, Oregon
1977-1978 Research Associate, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene
1974-1978 Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of Oregon
1973-1974 Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of Oregon
1972-1973 Postdoctoral Clinical Intern, Psychiatry Dept., University of Wisconsin, Madison
1969-1972 Research Associate/Instructor, Dept. of Psychology, University of Washington
2017-2019 Member, National Academy of Science, Engineering, and Medicine Committee on Promoting Healthy Development
2007-2008 Member, Institute of Medicine Committee on Prevention
2001-2005 Expert witness for the U.S. Department of Justice in U. S. vs. Philip Morris et al.
2005-2007 President, Society for Prevention Research
2010 Board Member, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
1997-2008 Board Member, Society for Prevention Research
2000-2001 Director, Project on Multiple Problem Behaviors in Adolescence at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California
1998-2001 Member, Behavior Change Expert Panel, Office of National Drug Control Policy
1996-2000 Grant Reviewer, NIDA Epidemiology and Prevention Review Committee
1979-2005 Board Member, Oregon Research Institute
1990-1992 Chairman of the Board, Oregon Research Institute
1994 Chairman of the Board, Pacific Research Institute
1977-1991 Board Member, American Civil Liberties Union of Oregon
1989-1991 President, ACLU of Oregon
MAJOR RESEARCH INTERESTS
- The evolution of cultural practices
- Nurturing child and adolescent development
- Reducing greenhouse gas emissions
- Reforming capitalism so that it works for everyone
PAST RESEARCH SUPPORT
2014-2019 NIAAA Principal Investigator
1 R01 AA021726
A Multidimensional Community-Based Strategy for Preventing Underage Drinking
This project evaluates a combination of policy and social influence interventions to reduce adolescent alcohol use and its sequelae.
3 R33 DA0356470 NIDA Co-Investigator
Oregon’s Coordinated Care Organizations Integrate Care for Drug Use Disorders
A supplement to study the implementation of drug abuse treatment in the CCOs of Oregon. This project collects data on the prevention efforts for young children of 8 CCOs.
2009-2014 NICHD Principal Investigator
1 R01 HD060922
Reducing Teacher Stress & Building a More Effective School Culture
To examine the effects of an acceptance-based intervention for reducing teacher distress and increasing schools’ collegiality
2008-2013 NICHD Co-Investigator
5 R01 HD052887
Adolescent Peer Social Network Dynamics and Problem Behavior
To examine the effect of a group-randomized trial of an already funded school-level positive behavior intervention on the over-time interdependence between early adolescent problem behavior and peer group dynamics
2008-2013 NIMH Co-Investigator
Prevention of Suicidality in College Students: A Common Core Process
To evaluate and assess the impact of an acceptance and mindfulness-based intervention to prevent suicidal behavior in a randomized controlled trial with at-risk college freshman
2009-2011 NIDA Co-Principal Investigator
1 RC2 DA028946-01
Creating the scientific infrastructure for the Promise Neighborhood Initiative
The PNRC assisted high-poverty neighborhoods in identifying and implementing evidence-based practices. The Consortium consisted of teams of prominent behavioral scientists who identified programs, policies, and practices to enable high-poverty communities to ensure young people’s successful development. It was a collaborative network of neighborhood and community leaders, behavioral scientists, and policymakers that united to support neighborhoods’ efforts.
5 R01 DA019037 NIDA Co-Investigator
Implementing School Wide Positive Behavior Support in Middle Schools
This study experimentally evaluated the benefits of school-wide Positive Behavior Support (PBS) for reducing the level of in-school problem behavior, improving academic achievement, preventing the development of deviant peer groups, and reducing the prevalence of substance use and antisocial behavior.
2005-2010 NIDA Principal Investigator
1 P30 DA018760
Center for Prevention of Problems in Early Adolescence
A core support center to integrate and support research projects spanning the range of research problems needed to improve prevention for early adolescence, including family, school, peer, neighborhood and community influences on substance use, antisocial behavior, depression, and high risk sexual behavior.
2004-2009 NCI Principal Investigator
1 R01 CA86169
Randomized Trial of a State Tobacco Prevention Project
To discover the effects of both tobacco control practices and individual risk factors on the prevalence of tobacco use among high school and middle school students
1 R01 AA014958 NIAAA Co-Investigator
Reducing Youth Access to Alcohol: A Randomized Trial
This study investigated the effects of changes in alcohol availability at the local level on consumption by young people. The processes through which changes in alcohol availability affect drinking will be empirically assessed.
5 R01 CA38273 NCI Principal Investigator
Mobilizing Parents and Peers to Prevent Tobacco Use
To test the mobilization of the influence of parents and peers in preventing youth tobacco use onset, by experimentally evaluating the efficacy of two prevention strategies in 40 Oregon middle schools.
1 R01 DA12202 NIDA Principal Investigator
Low-Cost Prevention of Conduct Disorders
To evaluate a comprehensive, inexpensive intervention to reduce early childhood conduct problems, one of the major predictors of later drug abuse
1 R01 CA86169 NCI Principal Investigator
Tobacco Control Activities & Adolescent Tobacco Use
To discover the effects of both tobacco control practices and individual risk factors on the prevalence of tobacco use among high school and middle school students.
1 R43 HD044316 NICHD Co-Investigator
Decision Support System for Youth Well-Being
To design and create a prototype Internet-based decision-support system for use by decision makers at the school, community and county level that incorporates data from the Oregon Healthy Teens and other public domain data sources related to the health and well being of youth in Lane County, Oregon.
Contract #103446 State of Oregon Co-Invstigator
Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws-OHT Data Analysis
To analyze the most recent three years of underage drinking data collection by Oregon Research Institute’s “Oregon Healthy Teens” research project, relating to rates of thirty day alcohol use and binge drinking in selected Oregon communities.
Biglan, A. (2020). Rebooting capitalism: How behavioral science can forge a society that works for everyone. Eugene, OR: Values to Action.
Biglan, A., Elfner, K., Garbacz, S. A., Komro, K., Prinz, R., Weist, M., . . . Zarling, A. (2020). A Strategic Plan for Strengthening America’s Families: A Brief from the Coalition of Behavioral Science Organizations. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review.
Biglan, A., Johansson, M., Van Ryzin, M., & Embry, D. (in press). Scaling up and scaling out: Consilience and the evolution of more nurturing societies. Clinical Psychology Review.
Biglan, A. (2020e). How cigarette marketing killed 20 million people. Social Pathologies Series. Retrieved from https://evolution-institute.org/how-cigarette-marketing-killed-20-million-people/
Biglan, A. (2020g). The right to sell arms. Retrieved from https://evolution-institute.org/the-right-to-sell-arms/
Biglan, A. (2020d). How and why the food industry makes americans sick. Social Pathologies Series. Retrieved from https://evolution-institute.org/how-and-why-the-food-industry-makes-americans-sick
Biglan, A. (2020a). Big pharma and the death of Americans. Social Pathologies Series. Retrieved from https://evolution-institute.org/big-pharma-and-the-death-of-americans
Biglan, A. (2020f). How free market ideology resulted in the great recession. Social Pathologies Series. Retrieved from https://evolution-institute.org/how-free-market-ideology-resulted-in-the-great-recession
Biglan, A. (2020c). The fossil fuel industry: The greatest threat to human wellbeing. Social Pathologies Series. Retrieved from https://evolution-institute.org/the-fossil-fuel-industry-the-greatest-threat-to-human-wellbeing
Biglan, A. (2020b). The crisis of capitalism. Social Pathologies Series. Retrieved from https://evolution-institute.org/the-crisis-of-capitalism/
Biglan, A., & Van Ryzin, M. J. (2019). Behavioral science and the prevention of adolescent substance abuse. Perspectives on Behavior Science, 42(3), 547-563.
Biglan, A., Van Ryzin, M. J., Moore, K. J., Mauricci, M., & Mannan, I. (2019). The socialization of boys and men in the modern era: An evolutionary mismatch. Development and psychopathology, 31(5), 1789-1799. doi: 10.1017/S0954579419001366
Biglan, A., Van Ryzin, M., & Westling, E. (2019). A public health framework for the regulation of marketing. Journal of public health policy, 40(1), 66-75. doi: 10.1057/s41271-018-0154-8
Van Ryzin, M. J., Lee, J., & Biglan, A. (2019). An Experimental Test of Reward & Reminder as a Stand-Alone Program to Prevent Alcohol Sales to Underage Youths. Journal of child & adolescent substance abuse, 28(1), 15-20. doi: 10.1080/1067828X.2018
Biglan, A. (2018). The ultimate goal of prevention and the larger context for translation. Prevention Science, 19(3), 328-336.
Biglan, A. (2018). Evolution and contextual behavioral science: An integrated framework for understanding, predicting, and influencing human behavior. New Harbinger Publications.
Van Ryzin, M. J., Fishbein, D., & Biglan, A. (2018). The promise of prevention science for addressing intergenerational poverty. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 24(1), 128. doi: 10.1037/law0000138
Lee, J. K., Biglan, A., & Cody, C. (2018). The impact of poverty and discrimination on family interactions and problem development. In Handbook of parenting and child development across the lifespan (pp. 699-712). Springer, Cham.
Biglan, A. & Prinz, R. J. (2017). Progress in Nurturing Human Well-Being. Clinical and Child Family Psychology Review, 20, 1-2. doi: 10.1007/s10567-017-0231-8.
Biglan, A., Van Ryzin, M. J., & Hawkins, J. D. (2017). Evolving a more nurturing society to prevent adverse childhood experiences. Academic Pediatrics, 17, S150–S157. [3,5,6] doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2017
Paschall, M. J., Grube, J. W., & Biglan, A. (2017). Medical Marijuana Legalization and Marijuana Use among Youth in Oregon. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 1-13. doi: 10.1007/s10935-017-0476-5
Van Ryzin, M. J., Fishbein, D., & Biglan, A. (2017, July 20). The Promise of Prevention Science for Addressing Intergenerational Poverty. Psychology, Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/law0000138
Alavosius, M. P., Newsome, W. D., Houmanfar, R., & Biglan, A. (2016). A functional contextualist analysis of the behavior and organizational practices relevant to climate change. Handbook of contextual behavior science. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
Biglan, A. (2016). The need for a more effective science of cultural practices.The Behavior Analyst, 39(1), 97-107.
Biglan, A. (2016). The ultimate goal of prevention and the larger context for translation. Prevention Science, 1-9. doi:10.1007/s11121-016-0635-6
Biglan, A. (2016). Extending the CBS tradition: a functional contextualist approach to cultural evolution (Introduction to Part 4). In R. Zettle, S. C. Hayes, A. Biglan, & D. Barnes-Holmes (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of contextual behavioral science. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
Biglan, A., & Barnes-Holmes, Y. (2016). Acting in light of the future: how do future-oriented cultural practices evolve and how can we accelerate their evolution? Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, doi:10.1016/j.jcbs.2015.06.002.
Biglan, A., & Hayes, S. C. (2016). Functional contextualism and contextual behavioral science. In R. Zettle, S. C. Hayes, A. Biglan, & D. Barnes-Holmes (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of contextual behavioral science (pp. 37-61). New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
Biglan, A., Lee, J., & Cody, C. (2016). The evolution of capitalism. In R. Zettle, S. C. Hayes, A. Biglan, & D. Barnes-Holmes (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of contextual behavioral science (Chapter 24). New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
Biglan, A., & Levin, M. E. (2016). Contextual analysis and the success of translational research. In D. Fishbein (Ed.), “The full spectrum of translational prevention science,” special issue of Translational Behavioral Medicine, 483.
Levin, M., Lillis, J., & Biglan, A. (2016). The potential of community-wide strategies for promoting psychological flexibility. In R. Zettle, S. C. Hayes, A. Biglan, & D. Barnes-Holmes (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of contextual behavioral science (Chapter 23). New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
Zettle, R., Hayes, S. C., Biglan, A., & Barnes-Holmes, D., Editors. (2016). The Wiley handbook of contextual behavioral science. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
Biglan, A., Flay, B. R., & Wagenaar, A. C. (2015). Commentary on the 2015 SPR Standards of Evidence. Prevention Science. Published online DOI 10.1007/s11121-015-0582-7.
Biglan, A. (2015). The nurture effect: how the science of human behavior can improve our lives and our world. Oakland, CA US: New Harbinger Publications.
Biglan, A., Gau, J. M., Jones, L. B., Hinds, E., Rusby, J. C., Cody, C., & Sprague, J. (2015). The role of experiential avoidance in the relationship between family conflict and depression among early adolescents. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 4(1), 30-36.
Hinds, E., Jones, L. B., Gau, J. M., Forrester, K. K., & Biglan, A. (2015). Teacher distress and the role of experiential avoidance. Psychology in the Schools, 52, 284-297.
Biglan, A. (2014). Comments on Dr. Foxcroft’s classification system. Prevention Science, 16, 823-824.
Wilson, D. S., Hayes, S. C., Biglan, A., & Embry, D. D. (2014a). Evolving the future: toward a science of intentional change. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37, 395-416.
Wilson, D. S., Hayes, S. C., Biglan, T., & Embry, D. (2014b). Collaborating on evolving the future. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 37, 438 – 460 (response to commentaries).
Biglan, A., & Cody, C. (2013). Integrating the human sciences to evolve effective policies. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 90S, S152-S162.
Biglan, A. & Embry, D.D. (2013). A framework for intentional cultural change. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 2, 95-104.
Biglan, A., & Glenn, S. S. (2013). Toward prosocial behavior and environments: Behavioral and cultural contingencies in a public health framework. In G. J. Madden, W. V. Dube, T. D. Hackenberg, G. P. Hanley, & K. A. Lattal (Eds.), APA handbook of behavior analysis, Vol. 2: Translating principles into practice (pp. 255-275). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Biglan, A., Layton, G. L., Jones, L. B., Hankins, M., & Rusby, J. C. (2013). The value of workshops on psychological flexibility for early childhood special education staff. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 32, 196-210.
Flewelling, R.L., Grube, J.W., Paschall, M.J., Biglan, A., Kraft, A., Black, C., Hanley, S., Ringwalt, C., Wiesen, C., & Ruscoe, J. (2013). Reducing youth access to alcohol: Findings from a community-based randomized trial. American Journal of Community Psychology, 51(1-2), 264-277.
Biglan, A., Flay, B., Embry, D. D., & Sandler, I. (2012). Nurturing environments and the next generation of prevention research and practice. Special issue of American Psychologist,, 67, 257-271.
Levin, M.E., Lillis, J., Seeley, J., Hayes, S.C., Pistorello, J., & Biglan, A. (2012). Exploring the relationship between Experiential Avoidance, alcohol use disorders, and alcohol-related problems among first-year college students. Journal of American College Health, 60, 443-448.
Biglan, A. (2011). Corporate externalities: A challenge to the further success of prevention science. Prevention Science, 12, 1-11.
Biglan, A., & Fishbein, D.H. (2011). Implications for translational prevention research: Science, policy, and advocacy. In M.T. Bardo, D. H. Fishbein, & R. S. Milich (Eds.), Inhibitory control and drug abuse prevention: From research to translation. New York: Springer.
Komro, K.A., Flay, B.R., Biglan, A., & The Promise Neighborhoods Research Consortium (2011). Creating nurturing environments: a science-based framework for promoting child health and development within high-poverty neighborhoods. Clinical Child and Family Review, 14, 111-134.
Pechmann, C., Biglan, A., Grube, J., & Cody, C. (2011). Transformative consumer research for addressing tobacco and alcohol consumption. In D. G. Mick, S. Pettigrew, C. Pechmann, & J. L. Ozanne (Eds.), Transformative consumer research for personal and collective well-being (pp. 353-389). New York: Routledge.
Rusby, J., Crowley, R., Sprague, J., & Biglan, A. (2011). Observations of the middle school environment: The context for student behavior beyond the classroom. Psychology in the Schools, 48, 400-415.
Valentine, J. C., Biglan, A., Boruch, RF, Castro, F. G., Collins, L. M., Flay, B. R., et al. (2011). Replication in prevention science. Prevention Science, 12, 103-117.
Biglan, A., Hinds, E., & Cody, C. (2010). Building healthy communities to promote successful development. In M.R. Shinn, & H.M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior problems in a three-tier model including RTI (pp. 79-100). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. (Invited chapter)
Biglan, A. (2009). The role of advocacy organizations in reducing negative externalities. Journal of Organizational Behavioral Management, 29, 1-16.
Biglan, A. (2009). Increasing psychological flexibility to influence cultural evolution. Behavior and Social Issues, 2009, 15-24. Retrieve at http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/
Biglan, A. & Hinds, E. (2009). Evolving prosocial and sustainable neighborhoods and communities. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 169-196.
Embry, D., Hankins, M., Biglan, A., & Boles, S. (2009). Behavioral and social correlates of methamphetamine use in a population-based sample of early and later adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 34, 343-351.
National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: progress and possibilities. Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Children, Youth, and Young Adults: Research Advances and Promising Interventions. M.E. O’Connell, T. Boat, & K. E. Warner, Editors. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Contributing author.
Pizacani, B.A., Dent, C.W., Maher, J.E., Rohde, K., Stark, M.J., Biglan, A., & Thompson, J. (2009). Smoking patterns in Oregon youth: Effects of funding and defunding of a comprehensive tobacco control program. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 229-236.
Biglan, A., Hayes, S. C., & Pistorello, J. (2008). Acceptance and commitment: Implications for prevention science. Prevention Science, 9, 139-152.
Biglan, A. & Ogden, T. (2008). The evolution of evidence-based practices. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 9, 81-95.
Embry, D.D. & Biglan, A. (2008). Evidence-based kernels: Fundamental units of behavioral influence. Clinical Child and Family Psychology. 11(3), 77-113.
Gordon, J., Biglan, A., & Smolkowski, K. (2008). The impact on tobacco use of branded youth anti-tobacco activities and family communications about tobacco. Prevention Science, 9, 73-87. Available online at http://www.springerlink.com/content/b2r7420w4qk6137n/
Hayes, S.C., Pistorello, J., & Biglan, A. (2008). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Model, data, and extension to the prevention of suicide. Brazilian Journal of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy, 10(1), 81-102.
Metzler, C. W., Biglan, A., Embry, D. D., Sprague, J. R., Boles, S. M., & Kavanagh, K. A. (2008). Improving the well-being of adolescents in Oregon. Eugene, OR: Center on Early Adolescence, Oregon Research Institute.
National Cancer Institute (2008). The role of the media in promoting and reducing tobacco use (NCI Tobacco Control Monograph 19). Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health (Contributing author).
Forrester, K., Biglan, A., Severson, H. H., & Smolkowski, K. (2007). Predictors of smoking onset over two years. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9(12), 1259-1267.
Paschall, M. J., Grube, J. W., Black, C.A., Flewelling, R. L., Ringwalt, C. L., & Biglan, A. (2007). Alcohol outlet characteristics and alcohol sales to youth: results of alcohol purchase surveys in 45 Oregon communities. Prevention Science, 8(2), 153-159.
Severson, H. H., Forrester, K., & Biglan, A. (2007). Use of smokeless tobacco by adolescents is a risk factor for cigarette smoking two years later. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9(12), 1331-1337.
Biglan, A., Sprague, J., & Moore, K.J. (2006). A functional contextualist framework for affecting peer influence practices. In K. A. Dodge & T. J. Dishion (Eds.) Deviant social contagion (Chap. 19). New York: Guilford Press.
Boles, S., Biglan, A., & Smolkowski, K. (2006). Relationships among negative and positive behaviors in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 33-52.
Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A., Dent, C., & Seeley, J. (2006). The multilevel structure of four adolescent problems. Prevention Science, 7(3), 239-256.
Biglan, A. (2005). Rule-governed behavior. In: M. Hersen, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.) Encyclopedia of behavior modification & cognitive behavior therapy (pp. 1483-1487). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Dent, C.W., Grube, J. W., & Biglan, A. (2005). Community level alcohol availability and enforcement of possession laws as predictors of youth drinking. Prevention Medicine, 40, 355-362.
Flay, B., Biglan, A. Boruch, R.F., Castro, F.G., Gottfredson, D., Kellam, S., et al. (2005) Standards of Evidence: Criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination. Prevention Science, 6(3), 151-175.
Gunn, B., Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A., Black, C., & Blair, J. (2005). Fostering the development of reading skill through supplemental instruction: Results for Hispanic and non-Hispanic students. The Journal of Special Education, 39(2), 66-85.
Rusby, J. C., Forrester, K. K., Biglan, A. & Metzler, C. W. (2005). Relationships between peer harassment and adolescent problem behaviors. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 453-477.
Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A., Barrera, M., Taylor, T., Black, C., & Blair, J. (2005). Schools and homes in partnership (SHIP): Long-term effects of a preventive intervention focused on social behavior and reading skill in early elementary school. Prevention Science, 6(2), 113-125.
Sussman, S., Earleywine, M., Wills, T.A., Cody, C., Biglan, A., & Dent, C.W. (2005). What are the implications of a motivation-skills-decision making approach on drug abuse prevention? Is this a transdisciplinary fusion approach? (Ch. 13) In: Sussman, S., Stacy, A.W., & Johnson, C.A. (Eds.): Transdisciplinary drug abuse prevention research: A special issue of substance use & misuse.
Biglan, A. (2004). Contextualism and the development of effective prevention practices. Prevention Science, 5, 15-21.
Biglan, A. (2004). Direct written testimony in the case of the U.S.A. vs. Phillip Morris et al. U.S. Department of Justice. Available online at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/qnr07a00.
Biglan, A., Brennan, P.A., Foster, S.L., Holder, H.D., Miller, T.L., Cunningham, P.B. et al. (2004). Helping adolescents at risk: Prevention of multiple problems of youth. New York: Guilford.
Dent, C. & Biglan, A. (2004). Relation between access to tobacco and adolescent smoking. Tobacco Control, 13(4), 334-338.
Mrazek, P., Biglan, A., & Hawkins, J.D. (2004). Community-monitoring systems: Tracking and improving the well-being of America’s children and adolescents. Falls Church, VA: Society for Prevention Research. Accessed electronically at http://www.preventionresearch.org.
Biglan, A. (2003). Selection by consequences. Prevention Science, 4(4), 213-232.
Biglan, A. (2003). The generic features of effective childrearing. In A. Biglan, M.C. Wang, & H.J. Walberg (Eds.) Preventing youth problems. (pp. 145-162). New York: Plenum.
Biglan, A., Flay, B., & Foster, S.L. (2003). The prevention of drug abuse. In A. Biglan, M.C. Wang, & H.J. Walberg (Eds.) Preventing youth problems. (pp. 87-112). New York: Plenum.
Biglan, A. & Severson, H.H. (2003). The prevention of tobacco use. In A. Biglan, M.C. Wang, & H.J. Walberg (Eds.) Preventing youth problems. (pp. 63-86). New York: Plenum.
Biglan, A. & Cody, C. (2003). Preventing multiple problem behaviors in adolescence. In D. Romer: Reducing adolescent risk: Toward an integrated approach (pp. 125-31). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Biglan, A., Mrazek, P.J., Carnine, D., & Flay, B.R. (2003). The integration of research and practice in the prevention of youth problem behaviors. American Psychologist, 58(6/7), 433-440.
Biglan, A., Wang, M.C., & Walberg, H.J. (Eds.) (2003). Preventing youth problems. New York: Plenum.
Walberg, H.J. & Biglan, A. (2003). Conclusions and recommendations. In A. Biglan, M.C. Wang, & H.J. Walberg (Eds.) Preventing youth problems. (pp. 163-166). New York: Plenum.
Barrera, M. Jr., Biglan, A., Taylor, T.K., Gunn, B.K., Smolkowski, K., Black, C., et al. (2002). Early elementary school intervention to reduce conduct problems: A randomized trial with American Indian, Hispanic, and Caucasian youth. Prevention Science 3(2), 83-94.
Biglan, A. & James, L. (2002). Making effective use of prevention science. In L.S. Jason & D. Glenwick: Innovative strategies for promoting health and mental health across the life span (pp. 17-36). New York: Springer Publishing Co.
Biglan, A. & Smolkowski, K. (2002). The role of the community psychologist in the 21st century. Prevention & Treatment, 5, Article 2. Available on the World Wide Web: http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume5/pre0050002a.html.
Biglan, A. &. Smolkowski, K. (2002). Intervention effects on adolescent drug use and critical influences on the development of problem behavior. In D.B. Kandel (Ed.): Stages and pathways of drug involvement: Examining the gateway hypothesis. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gunn, B., Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A., & Black, C. (2002). Supplemental instruction in decoding skills for Hispanic and Non-Hispanic students in early elementary school: A follow-up. The Journal of Special Education 36(2), 69-79.
Sheeber, L., Biglan, A., Metzler, C.W., & Taylor, T.K. (2002). Effective parenting practices. In L.A. Jason & D.S. Glenwick (Eds.): Innovative strategies for promoting health and mental health across the lifespan. New York: Springer.
Barrera M. Jr., Biglan, A., Ary, D.V., & Li, F. (2001). Replication of a problem behavior model with American Indian, Hispanic, and Caucasian youth. Journal of Early Adolescence, 21(2), 133-57.
Metzler, C.W., Biglan, A., Rusby, J.C., & Sprague, J. (2001). Evaluation of a comprehensive behavior management program to improve school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children, 24(4), 448-79.
Botvin, G.J., Sussman, S., & Biglan, A. (2001). The Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project: A lesson on inaccurate media coverage and the importance of prevention advocacy. Prevention Science, 2(2), 67-70.
Biglan, A., Ary, D. V., Smolkowski, K., Duncan, T., & Black, C. (2000). A randomised controlled trial of a community intervention to prevent adolescent tobacco use. Tobacco Control, 9(1), 24-32. doi:10.1136/tc.9.1.24
Biglan, A. & Taylor T. (2000a). Why have we been more successful in reducing tobacco use than violent crime? American Journal of Community Psychology, 28(3), 269-302.
Biglan, A. & Taylor, T. (2000b). Increasing the use of science to improve child-rearing. Journal of Primary Prevention, 21(2), 207-26.
Gunn, B. K., Biglan, A., Smolkowski, K., & Ary, D. V. (2000). The efficacy of supplemental instruction in decoding skills for Hispanic and non-Hispanic students in early elementary school. Journal of Special Education, 34(2), 90.
Kelder, S.H., Maibach, E., Worden, J.K., Biglan, A., & Levitt, A. (2000). Planning and initiation of the ONDCP National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 6(3), 14-26.
Kistenmacher, B. & Biglan, A. (2000). Decreasing the prevalence of marital conflict: A public health perspective for clinical research. In M.J. Dougher (Ed.), Clinical behavior analysis (pp. 245-70). Reno: Context Press.
Metzler, C.W., Biglan, A., Ary, D.V., & Noell, J. (2000). A randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention to reduce high-risk sexual behavior among adolescents in STD clinics. Behavior Therapy, 31, 27-54.
Ary, D.V., Duncan, T.E., Biglan, A., Metzler, C.W., Noell, J.W., & Smolkowski, K. (1999). Development of adolescent problem behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 141-50.
Ary, D.V., James, L., & Biglan, A. (1999). Parent-daughter discussions to discourage tobacco use: Feasibility and content. Adolescence, 34, 275-82.
Barrera, M. Jr., Castro, F. G., & Biglan, A. (1999). Ethnicity, substance use, and development: Exemplars for exploring group differences and similarities. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 805-22.
Irvine, A.B., Biglan, A., Smolkowski, K., Metzler, C.W., & Ary, D.V. (1999). The effectiveness of a parenting skills program for parents of middle school students in small communities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 811-25.
Irvine, A.B., Biglan, A., Smolkowski, K., & Ary, D.V. (1999). The value of the Parenting Scale for measuring the discipline practices of parents of middle school children. Behavior Research and Therapy, 37, 127-142.
Metzler, C.W., Biglan, A., Ary, D.V., & Li, F. (1998). The stability and validity of early adolescents’ reports of parenting practices constructs. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 1-21.
Biglan, A., & Metzler, C.W. (1998). A public health perspective for research on family focused interventions. In R.S. Ashery, E.B. Robertson, & K.L. Kumpfer (Eds.): Drug abuse prevention through family interventions. NIDA Research Monograph 177 (pp. 430-58). NIH Publication NO. 99-4135. Washington, DC: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Duncan, S.C., Duncan, T.E., Biglan, A., & Ary, D.V. (1998). Contributions of the social context to developmental changes in adolescent problem behavior: A latent growth modeling analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 50(1), 57-71.
Jason, J. A., Biglan, A., & Katz. R. (1998). Implications of the tobacco settlement for the prevention of teenage smoking. Children’s Services: Social Policy, Research, and Practice. 1(2), 63-82.
Metzler, C. W., Taylor, T. K., Gunn, B., Fowler, R. C., Biglan, A., & Ary, D. V. (1998). A comprehensive approach to the prevention of behavior problems: Integrating family and community-based approaches to strengthen behavior management programs in schools. Effective School Practices, 17(2), 8-24.
Taylor, T. & Biglan, A. (1998). Behavioral family interventions for improving childrearing: A review of the literature for clinicians and policy makers. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1(1), 41-60.
Biglan, A., Metzler, C.W., Fowler, R.C., Gunn, B.K., Taylor, T., Rusby, J.C., & Irvine, B. (1997). Improving childrearing in America’s communities. In P.A. Lamal (Ed.): Cultural contingencies: Behavior analytic perspectives on cultural practices (pp. 185-213). Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
Biglan, A., Duncan, T., Irvine, B., Ary, D., Smolkowski, K. & James, L. (1997). A drug abuse prevention strategy for rural America. In E.B. Robertson, Z. Sloboda, G.M. Boyd, & N.J. Kozel (Eds.): Rural substance abuse: State of knowledge and issues. NIDA Research Monograph 168 (pp. 364-97). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Biglan, A., Ary, D.V., Koehn, V., Levings, D., Smith, S., Wright, Z., et al. (1996.) Mobilizing positive reinforcement in communities to reduce youth access to tobacco. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24(5), 625-38.
Biglan, A. (1996). Sexual coercion. In M.A. Mattaini & B.A. Thyer: Finding solutions to social problems. Behavioral strategies for change (pp. 289-316). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Biglan, A., Ary, D.V., Yudelson, H., Duncan, T.E., Hood, D., James, L. et al. (1996). Experimental evaluation of a modular approach to mobilizing anti-tobacco influences of peers and parents. American Journal of Community Psychology 24(3), 311-39.
Biglan, A. & Hayes, S.C. (1996). Should the behavioral sciences become more pragmatic? The case for functional contextualism in research on human behavior. Applied and Preventive Psychology 5, 47-57.
Irvine, A. B., Biglan, A., Duncan, T., & Metzler, C. W. (1996). Benefits and barriers for volunteer leaders of a parent training program. Family Community Health 18(4), 20-32.
Biglan, A. (1995). Choosing a paradigm to guide prevention research and practice. Published simultaneously in Drugs and Society, 8(3-4), 149-60, and in C.G. Leukefeld & R.R. Clayton (Eds.), Prevention practice in substance abuse. New York: The Haworth Press.
Biglan, A. (1995). Changing cultural practices: A contextualist framework for intervention research. Reno, NV: Context Press.
Biglan, A. (1995). Translating what we know about the context for antisocial behavior into a lower prevalence of such behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 479-92.
Biglan, A., Henderson, J., Humphreys, D., Yasui, M., Whisman, R., Black, C., & James, L. (1995). Mobilising positive reinforcement to reduce youth access to tobacco. Tobacco Control, 4, 42-48.
Biglan, A., Duncan, T.E., Ary, D.V. & Smolkowski, K. (1995). Peer and parental influences on adolescent tobacco use. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18(4), 315-30.
Biglan, A., Noell, J., Ochs, L., Smolkowski, K., & Metzler, C.W. (1995). Does sexual coercion play a role in the high-risk sexual behavior of adolescent and young adult women? Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 18(6), 549-68.
Biglan, A., Metzler, C.W., & Ary, D.V. (1994). Increasing the prevalence of successful children: The case for community intervention research. The Behavior Analyst, 17, 335-51.
Metzler, C. W., Noell, J., Biglan, A., Ary, D., & Smolkowski, K. (1994). The social context for risky sexual behavior among adolescents. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 17(4), 419-38.
Murray, D.M., Rooney, B.L., Hannan, P.J., Peterson, A.V., Futterman, R., Biglan, A. et al. (1994). Intraclass correlation among common measures of adolescent smoking: Estimates, correlates and applications in smoking prevention studies. American Journal of Epidemiology, 140, 1038-50.
Noell, J., Biglan, A., Hood, D., & Britz, B. (1994). An interactive videodisc-based smoking cessation program: Prototype development and pilot test. Computers in Human Behavior, 10(3), 347-58.
Repsher, L.H. and the Transdermal Nicotine Study Group. (1994). Smoking cessation by women and older persons: Results from the Transdermal Nicotine Study Group. Modern Medicine, 62, 34-38.
Wulfert, E., & Biglan, A. (1994). A contextual approach to research on AIDS prevention. The Behavior Analyst, 17(2), 353-63.
Biglan, A. (1993). A functional contextualist framework for community interventions. In S.C. Hayes, L.J. Hayes, H. Reese, & T. Sarbin (Eds.). Varieties of scientific contextualism (pp. 251-76). Reno, NV: Context Press.
Noell, J., Biglan, A., Berendt, J., Ochs, L. Metzler, C., Ary, D., & Smolkowski, K. (1993). Problematic sexual situations for adolescents. Health Values, 17, 40-49.
Biglan, A. (1993). Recapturing Skinner’s legacy to behavior therapy. Behavior Therapist, January, 3-5.
Hollis, J., Lichtenstein, E., Vogt, T., Stevens, V., & Biglan, A. (1993). Nurse-assisted counseling for smokers in primary care. Annals of Internal Medicine, 118, 521-25.
Biglan, A. (1992). Family practices and the larger social context. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 21(1), 37-43.
Metzler, C.W., Noell, J., & Biglan, A. (1992). The validation of a construct of high-risk sexual behavior in heterosexual adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7(2), 233-49.
Biglan, A., & Glasgow, R.E. (1991). The social unit: an important facet in the design of cancer control research. Preventive Medicine, 20, 292-305.
Biglan, A. (1991). Distressed behavior and its context. Behavior Analyst. 14, 157-69.
Biglan, A., Hood, D., Brozovsky, P., Ochs, L., Ary, D. & Black, C. (1991). Subject attrition in prevention research. In C.G. Leukefeld & W.J. Bukoski. Drug abuse prevention intervention research: Methodological issues. NIDA Research Monograph 107 (pp. 213-33). Rockville MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Severson, H.H., Glasgow, R., Wirt, R., Brozovsky, P., Zoref, L., Black, C., Biglan, A., Ary, D., & Weissman, W. (1991). Preventing the use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes by teens: Results of a classroom intervention. Health Education Research. 6(1), 109-20.
Biglan, A., Metzler, C.A., Wirt, R., Ary, D., Noell, J., Ochs L. et al. (1990). Social and behavioral factors associated with high-risk sexual behavior among adolescents. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 13(3) 245-62.
Biglan, A., Glasgow, R.E., & Singer, G. (1990). The need for a science of larger social units: A contextual approach. Behavior Therapy, 21, 195-215.
Biglan, A., Lewin, L., & Hops, H. (1990). A contextual approach to the problem of aversive practices in families. In G. Patterson (Ed.), Depression and aggression: Two facets of family interactions. New York: Erlbaum.
Hops, H., Sherman, L., & Biglan, A. (1990). Maternal depression, marital discord, and children’s behavior: A developmental perspective. In G. Patterson (Ed.), Depression and aggression: Two facets of family interactions. New York: Erlbaum.
Lichtenstein, E., Biglan, A., Glasgow, R. E., Severson, H., & Ary, D. (1990). The tobacco use research program at Oregon Research Institute. British Journal of Addiction. 85, 715-24.
Ary, D.V., Biglan, A., Glasgow, R., Zoref, L., Black, C., Ochs, L. et al. (1990). The efficacy of social-influence prevention programs versus “standard care”: Are new initiatives needed? Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 13(3), 281-96.
Biglan, A. (1989). A contextual approach to the clinical treatment of parental distress. In G. Singer & L. Irvin (Eds.), Support for caregiving families: Enabling positive adaptation to disability. (pp. 299-311). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Biglan, A., & James, L. E. (1989). Teoria y practica de la prevencion del habito de fumar: Sus implicancias en la prevencion del abuso de drogas [Theory and practice of smoking prevention: Its implications for drug abuse prevention]. CEDRO, Lima, Peru, 13-39.
Biglan, A., Rothlind, J., Hops, H., & Sherman, L. (1989). The impact of distressed and aggressive behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98(3), 218-28.
Severson, H., & Biglan, A. (1989). Rationale for the use of passive consent in smoking prevention research: Politics, policy, and pragmatics. Preventive Medicine, 18, 267-79.
Vogt, T.M., Lichtenstein, E., Ary, D., Biglan, A., Danielson, R., Glasgow, R.E. et al. (1989). Integrating tobacco intervention into a health maintenance organization: The TRACC program. Health Education Research, 4(1), 125-35.
Biglan, A. (1988). Behavior analysis and the larger context. Behavior Analysis, 23(1), 25-32.
Biglan, A., Hops, H., & Sherman, L. (1988). Coercive family processes and maternal depression. In R. De V. Peters & R.J. McMahon (Eds.), Marriages and families: Behavioral-systems approaches (pp. 72-103). New York: Brunner-Mazel.
Biglan, A., James, L.E., LaChance, P.A., Zoref, L., & Joffe, J. (1988). Videotaped materials in a school-based smoking prevention program. Preventive Medicine, 17(5), 559-84.
Ary, D.V., & Biglan, A. (1988). Longitudinal changes in adolescent cigarette smoking behavior: Onset and cessation. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 11(4), 361-82.
Biglan, A. (1987). A behavior-analytic critique of Bandura’s self-efficacy theory. The Behavior Analyst, 10(1), 1-15.
Biglan, A., Glasgow, R., Ary, D.V., Thompson, R., Severson, H.H., Lichtenstein, E. et al. (1987). How generalizable are the effects of smoking prevention programs? Refusal skills training and parent messages in a teacher-administered program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 10(6), 613-28.
Biglan, A., Severson, H.H., Ary, D.V., Faller, C., Gallison, C., Thompson, R. et al. (1987). Do smoking prevention programs really work? Attrition and the internal and external validity of an evaluation of a refusal skills training program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 10(2), 159-71.
Hops, H., Biglan, A., Sherman, L., Arthur, J., Friedman, L., & Osteen, V. (1987). Home observations of family interactions of depressed women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(3), 341-46.
Klonoff, E. & Biglan, A. (1987). “Hypoglycemic” anxiety: The role of reinforcement in psychophysiological disorders. Behavior Modification, 11(1), 102-13.
Weissman, W., Glasgow, R., Biglan, A., & Lichtenstein, E. (1987). Development and evaluation of a cessation program for adolescent smokers. Bulletin of the Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, 1(2), 84-91.
Biglan, A., Magis, K., DiRocco, A., & Silverblatt, A. (1986). First versus second portion of expired air and duration of breath holding in the sampling of expired air carbon monoxide. British Journal of Addiction, 81, 283-86.
Hops, H., Weissman, W., Biglan, A., Thompson, R., Faller, C., & Severson, H. H. (1986). A taped situations test of cigarette refusal skills among adolescents. Behavioral Assessment, 8, 145-54.
Lewin, L., Biglan, A., & Inman, D. (1986). Operant conditioning of EMG activity using cigarette puffs as a reinforcer. Addictive Behaviors, 11, 197-200.
Wilson, W., Ary, D.V., Biglan, A., Glasgow, R.E., Toobert, D.J., & Campbell, D.R. (1986). Psychosocial predictors of self-care behaviors (compliance) and glycemic control in non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, 9(6), 614-22.
Biglan, A. & Ary, D. V. (1985). Methodological issues in research on smoking prevention. In C. Bell & R. Battjes (Eds.), Prevention research: Deterring drug abuse among children and adolescents. NIDA Research Monograph. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Biglan, A., Gallison, C., Ary, D.V., & Thompson, R. (1985). Expired air carbon monoxide and saliva thiocyanate: Relationships to self-reports of marijuana and cigarette smoking. Addictive Behaviors, 10, 137-44.
Biglan, A., Hops, H., Sherman, L., Friedman, L., Arthur, J., & Osteen, V. (1985). Problem-solving interactions of depressed women and their husbands. Behavior Therapy, 16, 431-51.
Biglan, A., Weissman, W., & Severson, H. H. (1985). Coping with social influences to smoke. In S. Shiffman & T. Wills (Eds.), Coping and substance use (pp. 95-116). New York: Academic.
Dow, M.G., Biglan, A., & Glaser, S.R. (1985). Multimethod assessment of socially anxious and socially nonanxious women. Behavioral Assessment, 7, 273-82.
Friedman, L.S., Lichtenstein, E., & Biglan, A. (1985). Smoking onset among teens: An empirical analysis of initial situations. Addictive Behaviors, 10, 1-13.
Biglan, A., & Lichtenstein, E. (1984). A behavior-analytic approach to smoking acquisition: Some recent findings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 14(3), 207-23.
Biglan, A., McConnell, S., Severson, H.H., Bavry, J., & Ary, D.V. (1984). A situational analysis of adolescent smoking. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 7(1), 109-14.
Coyne, J., & Biglan, A. (1984). Paradoxical techniques in strategic family therapy: A behavioral analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 15, 221-27.
McConnell, S., Biglan, A., & Severson, H.H. (1984). Adolescents’ compliance with self-monitoring and physiological assessment of smoking in natural environments. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 7, 115-22.
Ary, D.V., Biglan, A., Gallison, C.L., Weissman, W., & Severson, H.H. (1983). Longitudinal prediction of the onset and change of adolescent smoking. Paper presented at the Fifth World Conference on Smoking and Health, Winnipeg, Canada.
Biglan, A., Severson, H.H., Bavry, J., & McConnell, S. (1983). Social influence and adolescent smoking: A first look behind the barn. Health Education, 14, 14-18.
Glaser, S.R., Biglan, A., & Dow, M.G. (1983). Conversational skills instruction for communication apprehension and avoidance: Evaluation of a treatment program. Communication Research, 10, 582-613.
Kniskern, J., Biglan, A., Lichtenstein, E., Ary, D.V., & Bavry, J. (1983). Peer modeling effects in the smoking behavior of teenagers. Addictive Behaviors, 8, 129-32.
Biglan, A., & Craker, D. (1982). Effects of pleasant-activities manipulation on depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 436-38.
Biglan, A., & Campbell, D.R. (1981). Depression. In J. Shelton & R. Levy (Eds.), Behavioral assignments and treatment compliance (pp. 111-46). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
Biglan, A., & Dow, M.G. (1981). Toward a second-generation model: A problem-specific approach. In L.P. Rehm (Ed.), Behavior therapy for depression (pp. 97-121). New York: Academic.
Dow, M.G., Glaser, S.R., & Biglan, A. (1981). The relevance of specific conversational behaviors to ratings of social skill: An experimental analysis. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 3, 233-42.
Hawkins, N.E., & Biglan, A. (1981). Parenting skills. In J. Shelton & R. Levy (Eds.), Behavioral assignments and treatment compliance (pp. 331-56). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
Biglan, A. (1980). Selling science to undergraduates (Review of Fields of applied psychology). Contemporary Psychology, 25, 820-21.
1970 – 1979
Alperson, J., & Biglan, A. (1979). Self-administered treatment of sleep onset insomnia and the importance of age. Behavior Therapy, 10, 347-56.
Biglan, A., Villwock, C., & Wick, S. (1979). The feasibility of a computer-controlled program for the treatment of test anxiety. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 10, 47-49.
Lewis, C., Biglan, A., & Steinbock, E. (1978). Self-administered relaxation training and money deposits in the treatment of recurrent anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1274-83.
Biglan, A., & Kass, D.J. (1977). The empirical nature of behavior therapies. Behaviorism, 5, 1-15.
Biglan, A. (1976). Expectancy and the verbal behavior of scientists and subjects (Letter to the editor). Behavior Therapy, 7, 569-70.
Lewinsohn, P.M., Biglan, A., & Zeiss, A.M. (1976). Behavioral treatment of depression. In P.O. Davidson (Ed.), The behavioral assessment of anxiety, depression, and pain (pp. 91-146). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Sank, L.I. & Biglan, A. (1974). Operant treatment of a case of recurrent pain in a 10-year-old boy. Behavior Therapy, 5, 677-81.
Biglan, A. (1973). The characteristics of subject matter in different academic areas. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57, 195-203.
Biglan, A. (1973). Relationships between subject matter characteristics and the structure and output of university departments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57, 204-13.
O’Brien, G.E., Biglan, A., & Penna, J. (1972). Measurement of the distribution of potential influence and participation in groups and organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56, 11-17.
Mitchell, T.R., & Biglan, A. (1971). Instrumentality theories: Current uses in psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 432-54.
Mitchell, T.R., Biglan, A., Oncken, G.R., & Fielder, F.E. (1970). The contingency: Criticism and suggestions. Academy of Management Journal, 13, 253-67.